Indian Institute of Technology, is considered to be the most prestigious institutions in India. The first Indian Institute of Technology was established in 1951. On 15 September 1956, the parliament of India passed the Indian Institute of Technology (Kharagpur) Act, declaring it as an Institute of National Importance. In the first convocation address of IIT Kharagpur in 1956, India’s first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru said:
“Here in the place of that Hijli Detention Camp stands the fine monument of India, representing India’s urges, India’s future in the making. This picture seems to me symbolic of the changes that are coming to India.”
The Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 lists a total of 10,585 seats in twenty-three institutes located at Kharagpur, Bombay, Kanpur, Madras, Delhi, Guwahati, Roorkee, Bhubaneswar, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, Jodhpur, Patna, Ropar, Indore, Mandi, Varanasi(BHU), Palakkad, Tirupati, Dhanbad(ISM), Bhilai, Goa, Jammu, Dharwad.
The IITs had a common admission process for undergraduate admissions, called IIT–JEE, which was replaced by Joint Entrance Examination Advanced in 2013. Students have provided only 2 chances to crack JEE one with senior secondary and other one is after that. In 2013, Indian government changes the selection criteria and divided it into two levels. Every year around 15 lakh students registered themselves for the joint entrance exam. An exam based on JEE-Main pattern completed in one shift is conducted for all the registered students in the first level, in which around 1.5 lakh students are qualified for the second level. Second level exam based on JEE-Advanced pattern completed in two shifts. Around 20% students are called for counseling which is also an admission process conducted by Joint Seat Allocation Authority.
Many of the graduate degrees are also offered, in which Bachelor of Technology (B-Tech) is the most common undergraduate degree. The B-Tech course is based on a 4-year program with eight semesters while Dual Degree and Integrated courses are 5-year programs. In the first year of B-Tech and Dual Degree courses common course structure has been introduced to the entire student while from the second year onwards students study subjects exclusively from their respective departments. In addition to these, at the end of the first year, meritorious students are provided with the option to change their branch on the basis of their performance.
The IITs receive comparatively higher grants than other engineering colleges. Most of the engineering colleges get around Rs. 10-20 crores (USD 2-4 million) per year while an IIT college gets Rs. 90-130 crores (USD 18-26 million) per year. The faculty-to-student ratio in the IITs is between 1:6 and 1:9. From the year 2016, students have to pay around Rs. 2, 00,000 per annum. However, students from SC and ST categories physically challenged students to have beneficiaries of the fee. The government also provides scholarships to all Master of Technology students and Research Scholars in order to encourage students for higher studies. The medium of instruction is English and the classes are usually held between 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. In all IITs, libraries are also established and there is an electronic library also. Relative grading is done considering the performance of the whole class. Students are graded on a scale of 0 to 10.
Student life and Cultures in IITs
Every parent wants that their children will get a good education as well as facilities to survive. In the IITs, students live in hostels situated in the campus. Students must choose one of them among three (NCC, NSS, and NSO). All IITs have their own sports grounds and swimming pools also. Every year, Inter IIT Sports Meet is also organized by any one of the IIT where participants from all IITs participate. IITs are not known for its education system but it is also known for its other curricular activities. All IITs organize annual cultural as well as technical fests, typically lasting three or four days. Techfest (IIT Bombay) is one of the largest technical fest in Asia which has been granted patronage from (UNESCO) for providing a platform for showcasing their talent in science and technology. Mood Indigo (IIT Bombay) is the largest crowd-puller cultural fest and Fluxus (IIT Indore) is the fastest growing among all.
There are so many clubs related to social service, technology, business, environment, cultural activity, etc. are also run by the students. The campus of all IITs is also consecrated to the environment. There is a lot of verdure. They are like a jungle, but it is comfortable and well situated. Worldwide, the highest ranked IIT Delhi is ranked at 179. The IITians are also known for their loyalty and many IIT Alumni Associations are active in India and abroad. Many IIT’s alumni have become entrepreneurs, leading position in corporations, pursued in politics also and gained recognition in other fields. The personality of all the IITians is mind blowing and they are known for their creativity and the ability to think out of the box.